二零一三年考研英语(二)真题及答案(完整版)(3)

  2010考研阅读text2-text3题源分析及参考答案

  Text 3

Passage

  北京新东方学校  周雷

In 2010. a federal judge shook America’s biotech industry to its core. Companies had won patents for isolated DNA for decades-by 2005 some 20% of human genes were parented. But in March 2010 a judge ruled that genes were unpatentable. Executives were violently agitated. The Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), a trade group, assured members that this was just a “preliminary step” in a longer battle.    On July 29th they were relieved, at least temporarily. A federal appeals court overturned the prior decision, ruling that Myriad Genetics could indeed holb patents to two genss that help forecast a woman’s risk ofbreast cancer. The chief executive of Myriad, a company in Utah,said the ruling was a blessing to firms and patients alike.    But as companies continue their attempts at personalised medicine, the courts will remain rather busy. The Myriad case itself is probably not over Critics make three main arguments against gene patents: a gene is a product of nature, so it may not be patented; gene patents suppress innovation rather than reward it; and patents’ monopolies restrict access to genetic testssuch as Myriad’s. A growing number seem to agree.Last year a federal task-force urged reform for patents related to genetic tests. In October the Department of Justice filed a brief in the Myriad case, arguing that an isolated DNA molecule “is no less a product of nature… than are cotton fibres that have been separated from cotton seeds. ”    Despite the appeals court’s decision, big questions remain unanswered. For example, it is unclear whether the sequencing of a whole genome violates the patents of indivi dual genes within it. The case may yet reach the Supreme Court。

A neuroscientist reveals how to think differently

A
钱柜qg777,In the last decade a revolution has occurred in the way that scientists
think about the brain. We now know that the decisions humans make can be
traced to the firing patterns of neurons in specific parts of the brain.
These discoveries have led to the field known as macroeconomics, which
studies the brain’s secrets to success in an economic environment that
demands innovation and being able to do things differently from
competitors [钱柜在线娱乐,27]
. A brain that can do this is an iconoclastic one.
Briefly, an iconoclast is a person who does something that others say
can’t be done.

B
This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other
people, but more precisely, it is their brains that are different in
three distinct ways: perception, fear response, and social intelligence
[28]
. Each of these three functions utilizes a different circuit in
the brain. Naysayer might suggest that the brain is irrelevant, that
thinking in an original, even revolutionary, way is more a matter of
personality than brain function. But the field of macroeconomics was
born out of the realization that the physical workings of the brain
place limitations on the way we make decisions. By understanding these
constraints, we begin to understand why some people march to a different
drumbeat.

C
The first thing to realize is that the brain suffers from limited
resources. It has a fixed energy budget, about the same as a 40 watt
light bulb, so it has evolved to work as efficiently as possible. This
is where most people are impeded from being an iconoclast. For example,
when confronted with information streaming from the eyes, the brain will
interpret this information in the quickest way possible. Thus it will
draw on both past experience and any other source of information, such
as what other people say, to make sense of what it is seeing [29]
.
This happens all the time. The brain takes shortcuts that work so well
we are hardly ever aware of them. We think our perceptions of the world
are real, but they are only biological and electrical rumblings.
Perception is not simply a product of what your eyes or ears transmit to
your brain. More than the physical reality of photons or sound waves,
perception is a product of the brain [30]
.

D
Perception is central to iconoclasm. Iconoclasts see things differently
to other people. 钱柜娱乐官网登陆,Their brains do not fall into efficiency pitfalls as
much as the average person’s brain [31]
. Iconoclasts, either because
they were born that way or through learning, have found ways to work
around the perceptual shortcuts that plague most people. Perception is
not something that is hardwired into the brain. It is a learned process
which is both a curse and an opportunity for change. The brain faces the
fundamental problem of interpreting physical stimuli from the senses.
Everything the brain sees, hears, or touches has multiple
interpretations. The one that is ultimately chosen is simply the brain’s
best theory. In technical terms, these conjectures have their basis in
the statistical likelihood of one interpretation over another and are
heavily influenced by past experience and, importantly for potential
iconoclasts, what other people say.

E
The best way to see things differently to other people is to bombard
the brain with things it has never encountered before [32]
. Novelty
releases the perceptual process from the chains of past experience and
forces the brain to make new judgments.** Successful iconoclasts have
an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and
different [33]**. Observation of iconoclasts shows that they embrace
novelty while most people avoid things that are different.

F
The problem with novelty, however, is that it tends to trigger the
brain’s fear system.** Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an
iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks [35]**. There
are many types of fear, but the two that inhibit iconoclastic thinking
and people generally find difficult to deal with are fear of uncertainty
and fear of public ridicule. These may seem like trivial phobias. But
fear of public speaking, which everyone must do from time to time,
afflicts one-third of the population. This makes it too common to be
considered a mental disorder [37]
. It is simply a common variant of
human nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions.

G
Finally, to be successful iconoclasts, individuals must sell their ideas
to other people. This is where social intelligence comes in. Social
intelligence is the ability to understand and manage people in a
business setting. In the last decade there has been an explosion of
knowledge about the social brain and how the brain works when groups
coordinate decision making [39]
. Neuroscience has revealed which
brain circuits are responsible for functions like understanding what
other people think, empathy, fairness, and social identity. These brain
regions play key roles in whether people convince others of their ideas.
Perception is important in social cognition too. The perception of
someone’s enthusiasm, or reputation, can make or break a deal.
Understanding how perception becomes intertwined with social decision
making shows why successful iconoclasts are so rare [38]
.

H
lconoclasts create new opportunities in every area from artistic
expression to technology to business [40]
. They supply creativity
and innovation not easily accomplished by committees. Rules aren’t
important to them. lconoclasts face alienation and failure, but can
also be a major asset to any organization [40]
. It is crucial for
success in any field to understand how the iconoclastic mind works.

  Text 2

  AS the industry advances ,however,other suits may have an even
greater impact.companies are unlikely to file many more patents for
human DNA molecules-most are already patented or in  the public domain
.firms are now studying how genes intcract,looking for correlations that
might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s
efficacy,companies are eager to win patents for ‘connecting the
dits’,expaains hans sauer,alawyer for the BIO。

2.Word and Phrases

words and phrases chinese meaning
Be traced to 追溯到
Firing patterns 放电模式
Neurons 神经元;神经细胞
Iconoclastic 打破旧习的
Iconoclast 提倡打破旧习的人;反对崇拜偶像者
Imply 意味;暗示;隐含
Circuit 回路
Naysayer 否定者;拒绝者;怀疑者;老是唱反调的人
Irrelevant 不相干的;不切题的
Be born out of 生于;脱胎于
Place limitations on 限制……
Constraint 约束;强制
March to 向……前进v
Drumbeat 鼓声;大鼓声
March to a different drumbeat 独树一帜,标新立异
Watt 瓦特
Impede 阻碍;妨碍;组织
Be impeded from 某物在……受阻
Confronted with 面临……
Draw on 利用;动用
Take a shortcut to 走捷径;抄近路
Photon 光子
Physical reality 物理现实
Sound waves 声波
Pitfall 陷阱;圈套
Fall into pitfall 调入陷阱
Plague sb. 折磨某人;使某人苦恼
Hardwired 电路的
Hardwired into the brain 根植到大脑
Curse 诅咒
In technical terms 从技术层次而言
Conjecture 推断;猜想
Bombard 推测;揣摩
Embrace 拥抱
Embrace novelty 接受新奇的事物
Impediment to 妨碍……;阻止……;口吃
Inhibit 抑制;禁止
Ridicule 嘲笑;愚弄
Public ridicule 公众的嘲笑;他人的批评
Trivial 不重要的;琐碎的
Phobias 恐惧症
Afflict sb 折磨某人;使某人痛苦
Mental disorder 精神障碍;精神疾病
Too……to…… 太……以至于不能……
variant 变体;转化
Human nature 人性
Business setting 商业环境
Coordinate 调整;整合
Coordinate decision making 协商决策
Make a deal 成交;达成协议
Break a deal 打破协议
Alienation 异化;疏远
Receptive 善于接收的

  A Pending Threat to Patents

  Their success may be determined by a suit related to this issue,
brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court will hear in its
next term. The BIO rtcently held a convention which included seddions to
coach lawyers on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meeting was
packed。

问题解析

Question 27-31
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
钱柜娱乐手机版,Write the correct letters in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.

27 Neuroeconomics is a field of study which seeks to
A cause a change in how scientists understand brain chemistry.
B understand how good decisions are made in the brain.
C understand how be brain is linked to achievement in competitive
fields.
D trace the specific firing patterns of neurons in different areas of
the brain.

28 According to the writer, iconoclasts are distinctive because
A they create unusual brain circuits.
B their brain function differently.
C their personalities are distinctive.
D they make decisions easily.

29 According to the writer, the brain works efficiently because
A it uses the eyes quickly.
B it interprets data logically.
C it generates its own energy.
D it relies on previous events.

30 The writer says that perception is
A a combination of photons and sound waves.
B a reliable product of what your senses transit.
C a result of brain processes.
D a process we are usually conscious of.

31 According to the writer, an iconoclastic thinker
A centralizes perceptual thinking in one part of the brain.
B avoids cognitive traps.
C has a brain that is hardwired for learning
D has more opportunities than the average person.

四选一

  • 顺序题?Yes
    • 27-A
    • 28-B
    • 29-C
    • 30-C,位于29的后面
    • 31-D

Question 32-37
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading
Passage 3?

In boxes 32-37 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the view of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the view of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

32 Exposure to different events forces the brain to think differently.
33 Iconoclasts are unusually receptive to new experiences.
34 Most people are too shy to try different things.
35 If you think in an iconoclastic way, you can easily overcome fear.
36 When concern about embarrassment matters less, other fears become
irrelevant.
37 Fear of public speaking is a psychological illness.

Y/N/NG

  • 用上一个答题判断出第一题的位置
  • qg111钱柜娱乐,顺序题?Yes
    • 32-E
    • 33-E,在32的后面
    • 34-NG
    • 35-F
    • 36-NG
    • 37-F,在35的后面
  • NG型,可以根据前后题定位判断,但是一般都能通过顺序阅读大致推测出NG

Question 38-40

Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.

Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet.

38 Thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it
39 The concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it
40 Iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking

A requires both perceptual and social intelligence skills.
B focuses on how groups decide on an action.
C works in many fields, both artistic and scientific.
D leaves one open to criticism and rejection.
E involves understanding how organizations manage people.

搭配题

  • 顺序题?No
    • 38-G
    • 39-G,在38的前面
    • 40-H
  • 定位词很重要,即使有的选项很模糊,但是可以根据定位词进行判断

Tips

  1. 基本按照读题顺序,即可做完题目
  2. 主要是还是词汇问题,如果词汇量大,可以速度较快的按照阅读顺序做完题

  by Michael Orey

  31.it canbe learned from paragraph I that the biotech companies
would like—–

  Business Week  February 21, 2008

  A.their executives to be active

  Over the past decade, thousands of patents have been granted for
what are called business methods. Amazon.com (AMZN) received one for its
“one-click” online payment system. Merrill Lynch (MER) got legal
protection for an asset allocation strategy. One inventor patented a
technique for lifting a box。

  B.judges to rule out gene patenting

  Now the nation’s top patent court appears poised to scale back on
business-method patents, which have been controversial ever since they
were first authorized 10 years ago (第二十六题 D答案对 the controversy over
authorization). In a move that has intellectual-property lawyers abuzz,
the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit on Feb. 15 said it
would use a case pending before it to conduct a broad review of
business-method patents. In re Bilski, as the case is known, is “a very
big deal,” says Dennis D. Crouch, a patent professor at the University
of Missouri School of Law. It “has the potential to eliminate an entire
class of patents. (第二十七题
D答案对 it may change the legal practice in US)”

  C.genes to be patcntablc

  Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face
(第二十八题
C答案对,change of
the
attitude,因为后面说联邦巡回法庭以前是很支持商业模式上的专利的,但是现在可能完全不支持了),
because it was the Federal Circuit itself that ushered in such patents
with its 1998 decision in the so-called State Street Bank (STT) case,
approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling
produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by
nascent Internet companies trying to stake out exclusive rights to
specific types of online transactions. Later, more established companies
raced to add such patents to their portfolios, if only as a defensive
move against rivals that might beat them to the punch. In 2005, IBM
(IBM) noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300
business-method patents, despite the fact that it questioned the legal
basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street investment firms
armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took
positions in court cases opposing the practice。

  D.the BIO to issue a warning

  The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging
risk in the energy market. The Federal Circuit issued an unusual order
stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court’s judges,
rather than a typical panel of three, and that one issue it wants to
uate is whether it should “reconsider” its State Street Bank ruling。

  32.those who are against gene patents believe that—-

  The Federal Circuit’s action comes in the wake of a series of recent
decisions by the Supreme Court that has narrowed the scope of
protections for patent holders. Last April, for example, the justices
signaled that too many patents were being upheld for “inventions” that
are obvious. (第二十九题B答案对are
often unnecessarily
issued。现在美国最高法院已经收紧了颁发专利的范围,那么联邦巡回法庭也会收紧对商业模式的专利的审核)The
judges on the Federal Circuit are “reacting to the anti-patent trend at
the Supreme Court,” says Harold C. Wegner, a patent attorney and
professor at George Washington University Law School。

  A.genetic tests are not reliable

  纵观全文,最后一个题目第三十题,作为主旨题,答案应该是 A
looming threat to business-method patents

  B.only man-made products are patentable

  26. Business-method patents have recently aroused concern because of

  C.patents on  genes depend much on innovatiaon

  [A] their limited value to business

  D.courts should restrict access to gene tic tests

  [B] their connection with asset allocation

  33.according to hans sauer ,companies are eager to win patents
for—-

  [C] the possible restriction on their granting

  A.establishing disease comelations

  [D] the controversy over authorization

  B.discovering gene interactions

  27. Which of the following is true of the Bilski case?

  C.drawing pictures of genes

  [A] Its ruling complies with the court decisions

  D.identifying human DNA

  [B] It involves a very big business transaction

  34.By saying “each meeting was packed”(line4,para6)the author means
that —–

  [C] It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit

  A.the supreme court was authoritative

  [D] It may change the legal practices in the U.S。

  B.the BIO was a powerful organization

  28. The word “about-face” (Line 1, Para 3) most probably means

  C.gene patenting was a great concern

  [A] loss of good will

  D.lawyers were keen to attend conventiongs

  [B] increase of hostility

  35.generally speaking ,the author’s attitude toward gene patenting
is—-

  [C] change of attitude

  A.critical

  [D] enhancement of density

  B.supportive

  29. We learn from the last two paragraphs that business-method
patents

  C.scornful

  [A] are immune to legal challenges

  D.objective

  [B] are often unnecessarily issued

  Text 4

  [C] lower the esteem for patent holders

  The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is
probably beginning. Before it ends,

  [D] increase the incidence of risks

  it will likely change the life course and character of a generation
of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our
politics,our culture, and the character of our society for years。

  30. Which of the following would be the subject of the text?

  No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this
national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely
painful, had improved them in some ways; they had become less
materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the
struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will
leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our
national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a
necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending。

  [A] A looming threat to business-method patents

  But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far
off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic
historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S.
,lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always
left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually
stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant
sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and
classes。

  [B] Protection for business-method patent holders

  Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not
shrunk in this one,. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may
reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them—
especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the
economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people
graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with
degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they
otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is
the masses beneath them that are left behind。

  [C] A legal case regarding business-method patents

  In the internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment
that has always been hidden winthin American society. More difficult, in
the moment , is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting
society’s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially
tolerant entering this resession than at any time in its history, and a
variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed
results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will
reshape our social fabric. But they certainly it, and all the more so
the longer they extend。

  [D] A prevailing trend against business-method patents

  36.By saying “to find silver linings”(Line 1,Para.2)the author
suggest that the jobless try to___。

  Text 2 参考答案 26-30题 DDCBA

  [A]seek subsidies from the govemment

  Text 3

  [B]explore reasons for the unermployment

  The Accidental Influentials

  [C]make profits from the troubled economy

  Harvard Business Review  2007 02

  [D]look on the bright side of the recession

  In his best-selling book The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell argues
that “social epidemics” are driven in large part by the actions of a
tiny minority of special individuals, often called influentials, who are
unusually informed, persuasive, or well connected. The idea is
intuitively compelling – we think we see it happening all the time – but
it doesn’t explain how ideas actually spread。

  37.According to Paragraph 2,the recession has made
people_____。

  The supposed importance of influentials derives from a
plausible-sounding but largely untested theory called the “two-step flow
of communication”: Information flows from the media to the influentials
and from them to everyone else. Marketers have embraced the two-step
flow because it suggests that if they can just find and influence the
influentials, those select people will do most of the work for them. The
theory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected popularity of
certain looks, brands, or neighborhoods. In many such cases, a cursory
search for causes finds that some small group of people was wearing,
promoting, or developing whatever it is before anyone else paid
attention. Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea
that only certain special people can drive trends。

  [A]realize the national dream

  In recent work, however, my colleague Peter Dodds and I have found
that influentials have far less impact on social epidemics than is
generally supposed. In fact, they don’t seem to be required at all。

  [B]struggle against each other

  Our argument stems from a simple observation about social influence:
With the exception of celebrities like Oprah Winfrey – whose outsize
presence is primarily a function of media, not interpersonal, influence
– even the most influential members of a population simply don’t
interact with that many others. Yet it is precisely these noncelebrity
influentials who, according to the two-step-flow theory, are supposed to
drive social epidemics, by influencing their friends and colleagues
directly. For a social epidemic to occur, however, each person so
affected must then influence his or her own acquaintances, who must in
turn influence theirs, and so on; and just how many others pay attention
to each of these people has little to do with the initial influential.
If people in the network just two degrees removed from the initial
influential prove resistant, for example, the cascade of change won’t
propagate very far or affect many people。

  [C]challenge their lifestyle

  Building on this basic truth about interpersonal influence, Dodds
and I studied the dynamics of social contagion by conducting thousands
of computer simulations of populations, manipulating a number of
variables relating to people’s ability to influence others and their
tendency to be influenced. Our work shows that the principal requirement
for what we call “global cascades”– the widespread propagation of
influence through networks – is the presence not of a few influentials
but, rather, of a critical mass of easily influenced people, each of
whom adopts, say, a look or a brand after being exposed to a single
adopting neighbor. Regardless of how influential an individual is
locally, he or she can exert global influence only if this critical mass
is available to propagate a chain reaction。

  [D]reconsider their lifestyle

  31.By citing the book The Tipping Point, the author intends to

  38.Benjamin Friedman believe that economic recessions
may_____。

  [A]analyze the consequences of social epidemics

  [A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants

  [B]discuss influentials’ function in spreading ideas

  [B]bring out more evils of human nature

  [C]exemplify people’s intuitive response to social epidemics

  [C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms

  [D]describe the essential characteristics of influentials。

  [D]ease conflicts between races and classes

  32.The author suggests that the “two-step-flow theory”

  39.The research of Till Von Wachther suggests that in recession
graduates from elite universities tend to _____。

  [A]serves as a solution to marketing problems

  [A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities

  [B]has helped explain certain prent trends

  [B]catch up quickly with experienced employees

  [C]has won support from influentials

  [C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others’

  [D]requires solid evidence for its validity

  [D]recover more quickly than the others

  33.what the researchers have observed recently shows that

  40.The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society
is____。

  [A] the power of  influential goes with social interactions

  [A]certain

  [B] interpersonal links can be enhanced through the media

  [B]positive

  [C] influentials have more channels to reach the public

  [C]trivial

  [D] most celebrities enjoy wide media attention

  [D]destructive

  34.The underlined phrase “these people”in paragraph 4 refers to the
ones who

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  [A] stay outside the network of social influence

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  [B] have little contact with the source of influence

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  [C] are influenced and then influence others

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  [D] are influenced by the initial influential

  35.what is the essential element in the dynamics of social
influence?

  [A]The eagerness to be accepted

  [B]The impulse to influence others

  [C]The readiness to be influenced

  [D]The inclination to rely on others

  Text 3 参考答案 31-35题 BDACC

  text 4

  Banks and mark-to-market accounting

  The Economist

  April 8th, 2009

  36. Bankers complained that they were forced to

  [A] follow unfavorable asset uation rules

  [B]collect payments from third parties

  [C]cooperate with the price managers

  [D]reuate some of their assets。

  37.According to the author , the rule changes of the FASB may result
in

  [A]the diminishing role of management

  [B]the revival of the banking system

  [C]the banks’long-term asset losses

  [D]the weakening of its independence

  38.According to Paragraph 4, McCreevy objects to the IASB’s attempt
to

  [A]keep away from political influences。

  [B]evade the pressure from their peers。

  [C]act on their own in rule-setting。

  [D]take gradual measures in reform。

  39.The author thinks the banks were “on the wrong planet ”in that
they

  [A]misinterpreted market price indicators

  [B]exaggerated the real value of their assets

  [C]neglected the likely existence of bad debts。

  [D]denied booking losses in their sale of assets。

  40.The author’s attitude towards standard-setters is one of

  [A]satisfaction。

  [B]skepticism。

  [C]objectiveness

  [D]sympathy

  Text 4 参考答案36-40题 ADCBD

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